We'll go through different task activity markers by showing what they should look like, what they are used for, and how they build up a process flow.

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Normal Task

normal task A normal task is a single action that occurs in a business process, i.e. mailing a letter.

Normal Task Example

A normal task example would be any of the tasks in the example below. If you want to write a business process model that diagrams the process of writing a paper, it might look something like this.

task example

This business process model example demonstrates the tasks of brainstorming, writing a first draft, editing the draft and presenting a final draft.

Loop Task

loop task A loop task is a task that repeats over and over again in sequence.

Loop Task Example

If you want to incorporate a loop task example, you might change the editing paper task to a loop task. This allows you to signal your intention to repeatedly edit the document before submitting the final draft.

task example

In order to explain the conditions of the loop task you might also add an annotation saying that you will continue to edit the paper until the teacher says the current draft will get an A.

Multiple Instance Task

sequential MI tasksequential MI task A multiple instance task is a task that happens multiple times. These instances can happen in parallel or sequentially.

Multiple Instance Task Example

Continuing our paper writing process from above, let's say that you were able to get several friends to look over your draft and give you feedback on possible changes. You would want to make it a multiple instance task instead of a loop task. This indicates that you gave a draft to 3 different people, and that all 3 will get back to you at the same time.

multiple instance task example

The above example shows multiple edits happening simultaneously, but you could easily show the multiple edits happening sequentially.

Compensation Task

compensation taskA compensation task is a specialized version of a task that only happens when another specific task occurs previously. A compensation loop task is a task that happens over and over in sequential order and involves some sort of compensation.

Compensation Task Example

Your friends probably won't work for free, so you can add a compensation task by paying them to edit your paper.

compensation task

Compensation Loop Task

compensation loop task

Compensation Loop Task Examples

A multiple instance compensation task would be paying each of the 3 editors. If you only had 1 editor and you paid him/her each time an edit was made, that would be a looping compensation task.

Task Types

Business Rule Task Type

business rule

Business rule is an explicit type that was added with BPMN 2.0. Business rules are specific types of services maintained by a business working group, rather than an IT group. The rule shape is used to represent the implementation of a business rule.

Manual Task Type

business rule

A manual task type is used wherever a part of a process has to be executed manually. It can be executed without any outside help or application; for example, loading a truck with product.

Receive Task Type

receive task

A receive task indicates that the process is relying on an incoming message from a third party. Upon receiving a message, the task has been performed.

Script Task Type

script task

Script tasks are executed by a business process engine. The script is written in a language that the engine can parse, which is JavaScript in many instances.

Send Task Type

send task

A send task is a task that sends a message to another process or lane. The task is completed once the message is sent.

Service Task Type

service task

A service task is any task that uses an automated application or web service to complete the task.

User Task Type

user task

Indicates that the task is being performed by a person and cannot be easily broken down into simpler tasks.

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